`1+2`

`[1] 3`

`3/4`

`[1] 0.75`

`9*8`

`[1] 72`

`exp(4)`

`[1] 54.59815`

This week is designed to be an introduction week. We will briefly discuss topics related to statistics and inference. Then we will look at installing R and RStudio as well as the basics of using R.

Published

January 17, 2023

Define Population

Define Sample

Define Inference

Define Association

Installing R and RStudio

Scripts

R Packages

R Environment

A set of all measurements of interest to the sample collector.

A sample is any subset of measurements selected from the population.

Parameter: a measurement describing the population

Statistic: a measurement describing the sample

An association describes the relationship between two characteristics of a population.

If you are on a tablet or Chromebook, you can access R & RStudio via rstudio.cloud for free. However, they have limited computing resources. Be mindful of your experimentation. You may also be able to use Quarto in Rstudio cloud.

You can install R via their website: https://www.r-project.org/.

You can install RStudio for free from their website: https://www.rstudio.com/products/rstudio/download/

R can be used as a calculator; below are a few examples:

R has specialized functions that can compute specific values. R functions require inputs, known as arguments, to produce a specific output.

For example, the `log()`

function can be used to compute the natural logarithm of a specified input:

If you want to know information about a specific function, you can use the `?`

operator:

which will open the help tab. Notice there are 2 arguments: `x`

and `base`

. This means that the `log()`

function can be extended to other base. To use common log^{1}, specify the arguments:

Notice that I specified the arguments. You can also type this:

which produces the same results. This is because R uses positions in the function to determine argument values; therefore, if the positions are correct, you do not need to specify the argument name.

Going back to the First Lecture example, `log(34)`

, we did not specify the base. This is because functions have default values for arguments. The help documentation tells us what arguments have defaults and do not need to be specified.

You can extend the functionality of R. The tidyverse package includes a popular set of R packages for data wrangling and analysis. To install tidyverse, use the `install.packages()`

function^{2}:

Once you installed the R package, you will need to load with every R session using the `library()`

function:

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